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PFAS Investigation &
Management Program

Investigation and Management Process

PFAS Investigation and Management Process

The four main stages in the Defence PFAS investigation and management program are outlined below.


Site Investigation

First Investigation Stage

A Preliminary Site Investigation (PSI) includes a desktop historical review, site inspections and may include limited sampling to determine the potential for PFAS contamination.


Site Investigation

Second Investigation Stage

A Detailed Site Investigation (DSI) includes sampling and analysis to identify PFAS source areas, how it is moving in the environment and where it has moved to. Depending on the outcomes of a DSI, a human health and/or ecological risk assessment may be required.


Human Health and/or
Ecological Risk Assessment

Final investigation stage
(only if deemed necessary)

If the DSI identifies that contamination is present and there is potential for people, plants or animals to be exposed to PFAS levels above relevant guidelines, an assessment will be undertaken into the risk of PFAS exposure.


Management, Remediation &
Ongoing Monitoring

Management stage

Defence uses the findings of an investigation to assess if tailored management & remediation measures are required to to reduce the risks of PFAS exposure for the community.

We also continue to monitor PFAS concentrations and geographical spread so that we know if our management and remediation measures are working, or if we need to make adjustments.

Further information

Site specific information

Each investigation or management site has a dedicated website where you can read about the stages that have been completed, the findings of each stage and any management, remediation or ongoing monitoring activities underway. There are links to each website on the investigation and management sites page.

Management and remediation

If you'd like to find out more about the management and ongoing moinitoring stage, visit the management activities page. This page outlines some of the key management measures that Defence has put in place.

You can also read PFAS Management Area Plans, for sites in the management stage, on the publications page. These documents outline a plan for ongoing monitoring and recommend actions to manage and reduce the risks of PFAS exposure for the community.

Investigation process
All investigations are undertaken in accordance with the National Environment Protection (Assessment of Site Contamination) Measure 1999 (NEPM). You can read more about this process on the National Environment Protection Council website.